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Cinnamon is a spice that comes from the branches of wild trees that belong to the genus "Cinnamomum" - native to the Caribbean, South America, and Southeast Asia.
There are two main types of cinnamon:
Cinnamon has been consumed since 2000 BC in Ancient Egypt, where it was very highly prized (almost considered to be a panacea). In medieval times doctors used cinnamon to treat conditions such as coughing, arthritis and sore throats.
Modern research indicates that this spice may have some very beneficial properties.
According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine, Cinnamon is used to help treat muscle spasms, vomiting, diarrhea, infections, the common cold, loss of appetite, and erectile dysfunction (ED).
Diabetes - cinnamon may help improve glucose and lipids levels3 in patients with type 2 diabetes, according to a study published inDiabetics Care.
The study authors concluded that consuming up to 6 grams of cinnamon per day "reduces serum glucose, triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes." and that "the inclusion of cinnamon in the diet of people with type 2 diabetes will reduce risk factors associated with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases."
Alzheimer's disease - Tel Aviv University researchers discovered that cinnamon may help prevent Alzheimer's disease. According to Prof. Michael Ovadia, of the Department of Zoology at Tel Aviv University, an extract found in cinnamon bark, called CEppt, contains properties that can inhibit the development of the disease.
HIV - a study of Indian medicinal plants revealed that cinnamon may potentially be effective against HIV4. According to the study authors, "the most effective extracts against HIV-1 and HIV-2 are respectively Cinnamomum cassia (bark) and Cardiospermum helicacabum (shoot + fruit)."
Multiple Sclerosis - cinnamon may help stop the destructive process of multiple sclerosis (MS), according to a neurological scientist at Rush University Medical Center. Cinnamon could help eliminate the need to take some expensive and unpleasant drugs.
Lower the negative effects of high fat meals - Penn State researchers revealed that diets rich in cinnamon can help reduce the body's negative responses to eating high-fat meals.
Various methods are used to obtain cassia essential oil, such as drying and grinding the seeds and steaming the bark, leaves, twigs and flowers. Cassia produces a slightly sweet aroma, and it imparts a spicy taste that has a slight bite.
Traditional practitioners use cassia to treat a variety of maladies, including:
• blurred vision
• bloodshot eyes
• high blood pressure
• stomach and muscle spasms
• erectile dysfunction
• kidney disorders
• nausea and vomiting
• bed wetting
• menstrual problems
• to incite abortion
Positive reports about the essential oil from NIH confirm that the Cinnamomum Cassia tree contains cinnamaldehyde, a chemical that seems to counteract bacteria and fungi.
The U.S. National Library of Medicine cites the early use of spices for antimicrobial purposes, in fact it is mentioned in one of the oldest known medical books, and is mentioned several times in the Bible Much more recently, around the year 1676, Van Leeuwenhoek described some effects of using spices. Current interest in cinnemaldehyde is showing potential for development as an antimicrobial agent in food. Problems with adding a sufficient quantity of a flavorful spice such as cinnamon include the way that it alters the taste of food.
Cassia oil is used for athlete’s foot, a condition that can occur from walking on communal shower floors and saunas as well as swimming pools. Cassia is a well known and highly regarded antifungal agent.
Here is the original article that re-kindled all the old arguments about the presence of cannabis in the Torah / Old Testament when it was printed in 1975:
EARLY DIFFUSION AND FOLK USES OF HEMP
SULA BENET < -aka- SARA BENETOWA >
[ from *Cannabis and Culture*, Vera Rubin & Lambros Comitas, (eds.), 1975, pgs. 39-49 ]
Despite the growing volume of literature on the subject of hemp, the historical routes of its diffusion remain obscure and there is scant reference to its ubiquitous role in folk ritual, magic and medicine among European peasantry.
Both the word and its forms of use were borrowed by the nomadic Scythians from peoples of the Near East and diffused among the people with whom they came in contact. Ritual and other folk uses are described.
Hemp, one of the most versatile and important plants discovered by man and used for millennia, has been long neglected in scientific literature. Not until society's recent concern with drug addiction has the existing body of knowledge about hemp become so readily available. In the past, such information could be found in pharmacopoeia, in occasional historical references, or in ritual folkloristic material.
Although the body of literature concerning hemp has grown rapidly in the last decade, the exact origin of the plant has yet to be established; the historical routes of its diffusion remain obscure, and there is barely any reference to the role it played in the life of the European peasantry.
The latter should be of special interest in view of the ubiquitous use of hemp in folk ritual, magic, and medicinal practices.
A major reason for the obscurity as well as confusion that becloud the issue is that previously suggested theories of diffusion have been repeated and elaborated without critical examination of their historical sources.
For example, the German scientists, Schrader, Hehn, and Bushan, as well as learned biblical commentaries and modern botanists, have claimed that ancient Palestine and Egypt did not know hemp and its uses (Dewey 1913; Moldenke 1952).
In this paper, I propose to reconsider the origin of the term cannabis to demonstrate that it is derived from Semitic languages and that both its name and forms of its use were borrowed by the Scythians from the peoples of the Near East.
We will thus discover that the use of cannabis predates by at least 1000 years its first mention by Herodotus.
Next, we will examine the diffusion of the plant to Europe and its continued use in peasant rituals, magic, and medical practices.
Western scholars have universally considered the term cannabis to be of Indo-European, specifically Scythian, origin.
This widely-held opinion not only credited the Scythians with the name for hemp (which Linnaeus categorized as Cannabis sativa) but also with the initial introduction of the plant into Europe and Asia.
There was barely any history of cannabis before the Greek historian Herodotus, in the fifth century B.C., observed that the Scythians used the plant to purge themselves after funerals by throwing hemp seeds on heated stones to create a thick vapour, inhaling the smoke and becoming intoxicated.
"The Scythians howl with joy for the vapour bath" (Herodotus, IV: 142).
To the Western world, Herodotus' account is the earliest source of knowledge of the ritual use of cannabis.
Tracing the history of hemp in terms of cultural contacts, the Old Testament must not be overlooked since it provides one of the oldest and most important written source materials.
In the original Hebrew text of the Old Testament there are references to hemp, both as incense, which was an integral part of religious celebration, and as an intoxicant (Benet 1936) Cannabis as an incense was also used in the temples of Assyria and Babylon "because its aroma was pleasing to the Gods." (Meissner 1925 (II): 84).
Both in the original Hebrew text of the Old Testament and in the Aramaic translation, the word 'kaneh' or ' keneh' is used either alone or linked to the adjective bosm in Hebrew and busma in Aramaic, meaning aromatic.
It is 'cana' in Sanskrit, 'qunnabu' in Assyrian, 'kenab' in Persian, 'kannab' in Arabic and 'kanbun' in Chaldean.
In many ancient languages, including Hebrew, the root 'kan' has a double meaning --- both hemp and reed.
In many translations of the Bible's original Hebrew, we find 'kaneh bosm' variously and erroneously translated as "calamus" and "aromatic reed," a vague term.
Calamus, (Calamus aromaticus) is a fragrant marsh plant.
The error occurred in the oldest Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, in the third century B.C., where the terms 'kaneh, kaneh bosm' were incorrectly translated as "calamus."
And in the many translations that followed, including Martin Luther's, the same error was repeated.
In Exodus 30: 23 'kaneh bosm' is translated as "sweet calamus."
In Isaiah 43: 24 'kaneh' is translated as "sweet cane."
although the word "sweet" appears nowhere in the original.
In Jeremiah 6: 20 'kaneh' is translated as "sweet cane."
In Ezekiel 27: 19 'kaneh' is translated as "calamus."
In Song of Songs 4: 14 'kaneh' is translated "calamus."
Another piece of evidence regarding the use of the word 'kaneh' in the sense of hemp rather than reed among the Hebrews is the religious requirement that the dead be buried in 'kaneh' shirts.
Centuries later, linen was substituted for hemp (Klein 1908).
In the course of time, the two words 'kaneh' and ‘bos’ were fused into one, 'kanabos' or 'kannabus,'known to us from Mishna, the body of traditional Hebrew law. The word bears an unmistakable similarity to the Scythian "cannabis."
Is it too far-fetched to assume that the Semitic word 'kanbos' and the Scythian word 'cannabis' mean the same thing?
Since the history of cannabis has been tied to the history of the Scythians, it is of interest to establish their appearance in the Near East. Again, the Old Testament provides information testifying to their greater antiquity than has been previously assumed.
The Scythians participated in both trade and wars alongside the ancient Semites for at least one millennium before Herodotus encountered them in the fifth century B.C.
The reason for confusion and the relative obscurity of the role played by the Scythians in world history is explained by the fact that they were known to the Greeks as Scythians but to the Semites as Ashkenaz.
Identification of the Scythian-Ashkenaz as a single people is convincingly made by Ellis H. Minns (1965) in his definitive work on Scythians and Greeks.
The earliest reference to the Ashkenaz people appears in the Bible in Genesis 10: 3, where Ashkenaz, their progenitor, is named as the son of Gomer, the great-grandson of Noah.
The Ashkenaz of the Bible were both war-like and extremely mobile. In Jeremiah 51: 27, we read that the kingdoms of Ararat (known later as Armenia), Minni (Medea), and Ashkenaz attacked Babylonia. In 612 B.C. Babylonians with the aid of the Medeans (Medes) and Scythians, coming from the Caucasus, dealt a deadly blow to Assyria (Durant 1954). Referring the threat of war, Herodotus reports that Scythians attempted to invade Egypt by way of Palestine and they withdrew only after the Pharaoh paid them to retreat.
There is evidence of the presence of the Scythians in Palestine.
The city known as Beizan in modern times was originally called Bethshan and later renamed Scythopolis by the Greeks during the Hellenistic period, since many Scythians settled there during the great invasion of Palestine in the seventh-century B.C.
The importance of the geographical position of Palestine cannot be overlooked when considering the trade routes through which caravans moved, laden with goods and precious "spices."
Palestine was situated along the two most vital trade routes of the ancient world. One was between Egypt and Asia and the other ran west from Arabia to the coastal plain, from there branching off to Egypt to Syria.
In the original Hebrew of the Bible (Ezekiel 27: 19), in a description of Tyre, the royal city of the Phoenicians, famous in antiquity for its far-flung trade, it is noted that "Vedon and Yavan traded with yarn for thy wares; massive iron, cassia and kaneh were among thy merchandise."
(The markets of Tyre were frequented by the Jews.
Biblical quotation from "The Holy Scriptures," The Jewish Publication Society of America.)
King Solomon, a contemporary and friend of King Hiram of Tyre (960 B.C.), ordered hemp cords among other materials for building his temples and throne (Salzberger 1912).
Rostovtzeff (1932) describes the caravan trade between Babylonia, Egypt, Syria, and Asia Minor. Among the goods there was incense for the "delection of gods and men."
In addition to the caravan trade, the mobile, warlike Ashkenaz carried their raid to the Caucasus in the north and westward to Europe, taking with them their knowledge of the use of hemp as well as their dependence on its intoxicating qualities. So mobile were the Scythians that there is a good probability that as they spilled across much of Europe and Asia; they were the ones to introduce the natives to the ritual use of the plant and the narcotic pleasures to be derived from it. The Scythians apparently did not use hemp for manufactures such as weaving and rope-making. Yet, despite the plentiful quantity of wild hemp, the Scythians cultivated the plant in order to increase the amount available for their use. Apparently their need for it was great indeed.
Since hemp was originally used in rituals, it may be assumed that the Scythians spread their custom among the people with whom they came into contact. The Siberian tribes of Pazaryk in the Altai region (discovered by the Soviet archaeologist, S. Rudenko) left burial mounds in which bronze vessels containing burnt hemp seeds to produce incense vapours were found.
Rudenko believes that these objects were used for funeral purification ceremonies similar to those practised by the Scythians (Emboden 1972: 223).
Another custom connected with the dead in parts of Eastern Europe is the throwing of a handful of seeds into the fire as an offering to the dead during the harvesting of hemp --- similar to the custom of the Scythians and of the Pazaryk tribes, two-and-a-half thousand years ago.
There is no doubt that some of the practices, such as funeral customs, were introduced by the Scythians during their victorious advance into southeast Russia, including the Caucasus, where they remained for centuries.
Hemp never lost its connection with the cult of the dead.
Even today in Poland and Lithuania, and in former times also in Russia, on Christmas Eve when it is believed that the dead visit their families, a soup made of hemp seeds, called 'semieniatka,' is served for the dead souls to savor. In Latvia and the Ukraine, a dish made of hemp was prepared for Three Kings Day.
Since the plant was associated with religious ritual and the power of healing, magical practices were connected with its cultivation. In Europe, peasants generally believed that planting hemp should take place on the days of saints who were known to be tall in order to encourage the plant's growth. In Germany, long steps are taken while sowing the seed which is thrown high into the air. In Baden the planting is done during the "high" hours, between 11:00 a.m. and noon. Cakes baked to stimulate hemp growth are known as 'hanfeier.'
Following the planting, magical means are applied to make the hemp grow tall and straight. The custom of dancing or jumping to promote the growth of the plant is known throughout Europe. In Poland, married women dance "the hemp dance" on Shrove Tuesday, leaping high into the air. The hemp dance ('for hemp's sake') is also danced at weddings by the young bride with the 'raiko,' the master of ceremonies (Kolberg 1899). In the wedding rituals of the Southern Slavs, hemp is a symbol of wealth and a talisman for happiness.
When the bride enters her new home after the wedding ceremony, she strokes the four walls of her new home with a bunch of hemp.
She is herself sprinkled with hemp seeds to bring good luck.
In Estonia, the young bride visits her neighbors in the company of older women asking for gifts of hemp. She is thus "showered" with hemp.
The odor of European hemp is stimulating enough to produce euphoria and a desire for sociability and gaiety and harvesting of hemp has always been accompanied by social festivities, dancing, and sometimes even erotic playfulness.
Women play a leading role in the festivities. In Poland, initiation ceremonies are held during the harvest. Young brides are admitted into the circle of older married women on payment of a token fee.
Since the Catholic Church never deemed it necessary to interfere with these festivals, it must have regarded them as harmless and perhaps even socially benevolent.
In Eastern Europe hemp is evidently not considered addictive and no case of solitary use among the peasants has been reported: it is always used in a context of group participation. In many countries, hemp gathering is an occasion for socializing. The Swiss call it 'stelg' (Hager 1919). Young men come to the gathering wearing carnival masks and offer gifts to the girls.
Hemp gathering rituals also reveal the sacred character of the plant. In certain areas of Poland, at midnight, a chalk ring is drawn around the plant which is then sprinkled with holy water. The person collecting the plant hopes that part of the flower will fall into his boots and bring him good fortune.
The flower of a hemp plant gathered on St. John's Eve in the Ukraine is thought to counteract witchcraft and protect farm animals from the evil eye.
Although it is believed that witches can use the plant to inflict harm, they are not likely to do so in fact, and hemp is often used against persons suspected of witchcraft. In Poland, it is used for divination, especially in connection with marriage.
The eve of St. Andrews (November 30th) is considered a most propitious time for divination about future husbands.
Certain magical spells, using hemp, are believed to advance the date of marriage, perhaps even signal the very day it will occur. Girls in the Ukraine carry hemp seeds in their belts, they jump on a heap and call out: Andrei, Andrei, I plant the hemp seed on you.
Will god let me know
With whom I will sleep?
The girls then remove their shirts and fill their mouths with water to sprinkle on the seed to keep the birds from eating them. Then they run around the house naked three times.
The sacred character of hemp in biblical times is evident from Exodus 30: 22-33, where Moses was instructed by God to anoint the meeting tent and all its furnishings with specially prepared oil, containing hemp.
Anointing set sacred things apart from the secular. The anointment of sacred objects was an ancient tradition in Israel: holy oil was not to be used for secular purposes.
And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying, "This shall be a holy anointing oil unto me, throughout your generations." (King James Version, Exodus 30:31).
Above all, the anointing oil was used for the installation rites of all Hebrew kings and priests.
Dr. R. Patai (1947) expresses the opinion that the use of sacred oil is based on the belief in its nourishing, conserving and healing powers. Dr. Patai discusses the spread of this custom from the ancient Near East to most of Africa where we find the ritual of anointing among other parallels in the rites of installation of kings.
Almost all ancient peoples considered narcotic and medicinal plants sacred and incorporated them into their religious or magical beliefs and practices. In Africa, there were a number of cults and sects of hemp worship. Pogge and Wissman, during their explorations of 1881, visited the Bashilenge, living on the northern borders of the Lundu, between Sankrua and Balua. They found large plots of land around the villages used for the cultivation of hemp.
Originally there were small clubs of hemp smokers, bound by ties of friendship, but these eventually led to the formation of a religious cult. The Bashilenge called themselves: Bena:Riamba --- "the sons of hemp,: and their land Lubuku, meaning friendship. They greeted each other with the expression "moio," meaning both "hemp" and "life."
Each tribesman was required to participate in the cult of Riamba and show his devotion by smoking as frequently as possible. They attributed universal magical powers to hemp, which was thought to combat all kinds of evil and they took it when they went to war and when they traveled. There were initiation rites for new members which usually took place before a war or long journey. The hemp pipe assumed a symbolic meaning for the Bashilenge somewhat analogous to the significance which the peace pipe had for American Indians. No holiday, no trade agreement, no peace treaty was transacted without it (Wissman et al. 1888). In the middle Sahara region, the Senusi sect also cultivated hemp on a large scale for use in religious ceremonies (Ibid).
USE OF CANNABIS IN FOLK MEDICINE
Hemp, both because of its psychoactive properties and its mystical significance, became a popular and widely-utilized plant in the folk medicine of Europe and Asia. Since ancient times its soothing, tranquilizing action has been known. The Atharva Veda (1400 B.C.) mentions hemp as a medicinal and magical plant. In the Zend-Avesta, hemp occupies the first place in a list of 10,000 medicinal plants given to a doctor Thrita.
According to Dioscorides (100 A.D.), the resin of fresh hemp is an excellent treatment for earaches (Dioscorides 1902).
In an old Germanic catalogue of medicinal plants, hemp is listed as a tranquilizer (Hoffer n.d.).
An edition of Diocletian also mentions the use of cannabis as a medicament (Bretschneider 1881).
Medieval Arab doctors considered hemp a sacred medicine which they called 'schahdanach,' 'schadabach' or 'kannab' (Dragendorff 1898). Syrenius wrote in 1613 that ointment made from hemp resin is the most effective remedy for burns (Syrenius 1613) and that diseased joints could be straightened with the roots of hemp boiled in water.
In Russia and Eastern Europe hemp was widely used in folk medicine, and references can also be found to its use in Western Europe. In Germany for example, sprigs of hemp were placed over the stomach and ankles to prevent convulsions and difficult childbirth, and in Switzerland hemp was also used to treat convulsions.
In Poland, Russia and Lithuania, hemp was used to alleviate toothache by inhaling the vapor from hemp seeds thrown on hot stones (Biegeleisen 1929). Szyman of Lowic (16th century) gives the following prescription: "For worms in the teeth, boil hemp seeds in a new pot and add heated stones.
When this vapor is inhaled the worms will fall out." This method is varied somewhat in Ukrainian folk medicine, the fumes of cooked hemp porridge are believed to intoxicate the worms and cause them to fall out. In Czechoslovakia and Moravia, as in Poland, hemp was considered an effective treatment for fevers.
In Poland, a mixture of hemp flowers, wax and olive oil was used to dress wounds.
Oil from crushed hemp seeds is used as a treatment for jaundice and rheumatism in Russia. In Serbia, hemp is considered an aphrodisiac (Tschirch 1911). Hemp is also thought to increase a man's strength. In the Ukraine there is a legend of a dragon who lived in Kiev, oppressing the people and demanding tribute. The dragon was killed and the city liberated by a man wearing a hemp shirt.
Hemp is also used to treat animals. A cat that eats mukhomor, a poison mushroom, is kept in a hemp field to eat the plant until it "comes to its senses." And if chickens are given hemp seeds on Christmas Eve, they will lay all year round.
In central Asia, for cure or pleasure, hemp is eaten, chewed, smoked, rubbed over the body, inhaled and made into numerous elaborate concoctions.
Since the Soviet Union leads a determined fight against the use of hashish, the subject is taboo, and the literature on 'nasha,' as hemp is called in central Asia, is virtually nonexistent. Prof. Antzyferov (1934) wrote a short but most interesting report on the use of hashish in central Asia.
Hemp has also been used for the cure of chronic alcoholics in central Asia quite successfully, according to Dr. Antzyferov.
At the time of his report, Prof. Antzyferov was the head of the State Hospital at Tashkent where he collected among his patients and their relatives and friends numerous recipes for 'nasha.' All of his informants believed that a great deal of fat taken in food counteracts any harmful effect of 'nasha.' Some recipes are family secrets, others are well known and used for centuries by the general public, native and European settlers alike.
A mixture of lamb's fat with 'nasha' is recommended for brides to use on their wedding night to reduce the pain of defloration. The same mixture works well for headache when rubbed into the skin; it may also be eaten spread on bread.
A candy called 'guc-kand,' popular among women for a "happy mood," is made of hemp boiled in water, put through a sieve with added sugar, saffron and several egg whites. The ingredients are mashed and formed into small balls and then dried in the sun.
The candy is given to boys before circumcision to reduce pain and to children to keep them from crying. An ointment made by mixing hashish with tobacco is used by some women to shrink the vagina and prevent 'fluor albus' ( = leucorrhea - vaginal discharge ).
There is also "the happy porridge" made of the following ingredients:
(1) almond butter mixed with 'nasha' ( Cannabis sativa ),
(2) dried rose leaves,
(3) root of Anacyclus pyrethrum ( Mount Atlas daisy ),
(4) carnation petals ( clove Gilly-flowers ),
(5) crocus ( Crocus sativa, saffron ),
(6) muscat nut ( nutmeg ),
(8) honey, and
This mixture is the most expensive of all hashish preparations. It is eagerly sought by men who consider it the strongest aphrodisiac.
The use of hemp in Europe and Asia is, of course, much older than archaeological, historical or linguistic evidence would indicate. Early man roaming around in search of edible plants must have easily discovered the seeds and powerful odor of the ripened tips of the weeds.
There is considerable difference of opinion concerning the place of origin of the plant and its diffusion, specifically, its appearance in Eastern Europe, but it is generally understood that it should be searched where it grows in the wild. (Editor's note: see article by Schultes in this volume.)
The Russian botanist, N. Vavilov (1926) considers the region where the greatest number of varieties of a particular plant grow is the center of its evolutionary differentiation and variation. The common mid-European hemp is known as "Russian" or "German" hemp. This variety is spread over most of Europe except for the southern part. Hemp belongs to the group of plants which are self-planting and self-fertilizing.
Yanishevski observed that it draws to its fatty tissue a bug, Pirrhocoris apterus L., which clings to the base of the hemp seeds. The Pirrhocoris and birds contribute to the dissemination of hemp seeds. The Pirrhocoris and birds contribute to the dissemination of hemp seeds. De Candolle (1883), seeing the wild plant in the Black Sea and Aralian regions, concluded that this was the place of origin. We now know that hemp is also indigenous to the Russian plains, the Caucasus, Transcaucasia, the Crimea and the Urals, in fact, the whole area from China to the Balkan Peninsula (Vavilov 1926).
We must, therefore, conclude that there was not one but probably several origin sites and that whenever man discovered hemp he used it for food and probably as a stimulant. However, the ritual use of hemp as well as the name, cannabis, in my opinion originated in the Ancient Near East.
.From there in the middle of the second millennium B.C. through trade contacts, migrations and wars, the ritual uses of the plant were carried to Egypt and Africa, westward to Europe, and eastward to central Asia.
Whether India received the plant from China or central Asia is not clear.
Hemp, as used originally in religious rituals, temple activities, and tribal rites, involves groups of people rather than the solitary individual. The pleasurable psychoactive effects of hemp were then, as now, communal experiences.
I believe that the acceptance of tobacco in Europe was undoubtedly enhanced by European familiarity with smoking hemp. Tobacco was, in many ways a counterpart to hemp, all the familiar features were there. Brought to Spain from the New World as a medicinal plant, it came to be regarded as a cure-all; the Amerindian ritual use of tobacco may also have been known, and eventually also its psychoactive qualities.
Even the use of pipes for smoking tobacco in the Near East was adopted from the water-pipes used for smoking hemp. Like hemp, tobacco is chewed, sniffed and smoked.
Perhaps the spread of tobacco was so rapid and overwhelming in the Old World, because a receptive ground had been laid by the traditional folk uses of hemp.
ANTZYFEROV, L.V. ~ Hashish in Central Asia. Journal of
Socialist Health Care in Uzbekistan, 1934. Tashkent
BENET, SULA (BENETOWA) ~ Le chanvre dans les croyances
Et les coutumes populaires. Comtes Rendus de Seances de la
Societe des Sciences et des Lettres de Varsovie XXVII,
BIEGELEISEN, H. ~ Lecznictwo ludu Polskiego [Polish folk
medicine]. Cracow, 1929.
BREITSCHNEIDER ~ Gotanicon sinicum. Journal of Northern
China, Branch of the Royal Asia Society I: 569, 1881.
DE CANDOLLE, ALPHONSE LOUIS P.P. ~ Origine des plantes
cultivees. Paris: G. Bailliere, 1883.
DEWEY, L.H. ~ Hemp. Yearbook of the Department of
Agriculture. 289, 1913.
DIOSCORIDES, ANAZARBEUS PEDACIUS ~ Arzneimittellehre
[Pharmacology]. Translated by J. Berendes. Vol. III.
Stuttgart: F. Enke, 1902.
DRAGENDORFF, GEORG ~ Die Heilpflanzen der verschiedenen
Volker und Zeiten [The medical plants of various peoples and
times]. Stuttgart: F. Enke, 1898.
DURANT, W. ~ Our oriental heritage. Vol. I. New York:
Simon and Schuster, 1954.
EMBODEN , WILLIAM A. ~ "Ritual use of Cannabis sativa L,"
in Flesh of the Gods: the ritual use of hallucinogens.
Edited by Peter T. Furst. New York: Praeger Publishers.
pg. 223, 1972.
HAGER, K ~ Flachs und Hanfund ihre verarbeitung im
Bundner Oberland. Yahrbuch des Schweizer Alpenclub
pg. 147, 1919.
HOFLER n.d. Altgermanische Heilkunde [Old-Germanic
medicine]. Neubuerger-Pogel's Handbuch I: 466.
KLEIN, SIEGFRIED ~ Tod und Begrabnis in Palistina.
Berlin: H. Itzkowski, 1908.
KOLBERG, O. ~ Mazowsze Lud. Towarzystwo Ludoznawcze
V: pg. 206, 1899.
MEISSNER, B. ~ Babylonien und Assyrian. II: 84.
Heidelberg: von W. Foy, 1925.
MINNS, ELLIS H. ~ Scythians and Greeks. Vol. I.
New York: Biblo and Tannen, 1965.
MOLDENKE, H., A. Moldenke ~ Plants of the Bible.
Waltham, Massachusetts: Cronica Botanica Co, 1952.
PATAI, R. ~ Hebrew installation rites.
Hebrew Union College Annual XX, 1947.
ROSTOVTZEFF, M. ~ Caravan cities. London: Oxford, 1932.
SALZBERGER, G. ~ Salomons Tempelbau und Thron
[The building of Solomon's temple and throne].
Berlin: Mayer and Muller, 1912.
SYRENIUS, SZ. ~ "Zielnik [Medicinal plants]," in
Typographia Basilii Skalski. Krakow: [in Polish],
TSCHIRCH, A. ~ Handbuch der Pharmakognosie
[Pharmaceutical handbook]. II.
Leipzig: Verlag von chr. Herm. Tauchnitz, 1912.
VAVILOV, N. ~ Tzentry proiskhozhdenia kulturnksh rastenii
[Centers of origin of domesticated plants]. Trudy no Prile
Bot. I. Sel. XVI: 109 [in Russian], 1926.
WISSMAN, H., et al. ~ Im innern Afrikas [In Inner
Africa]. Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus, 1888.
See also the Encyclopaedia Britannica of 1856 entry on cannabis:
In China it is known as ma;
in Sanskrit it is known as goni, sanu or shanapu;
Arabic, kannah or kinnub;
French, chanvre or chanbre;
Danish kamp or kennep;
Lettish and Lithuanian, kannapes;
and English hemp.
Other terms for hemp include
Polish, konopi and penek and
Aitken. D., & Mikuriya, T.H. ~ The Forgotten Medicine, in
The Ecologist, (1980), Vol.10, Nos. 8/9.
Benet, Sula (as Sara Benetowa) ~ Tracing One Word Through
Different Languages [ Konopie w Wierzeniach i Zwyczajach
Ludowych, Prace etnolog. Inst. nauk antropol. i. etnolog.
Towarz. 2 ], 1936; reprinted in The Book of Grass, 1967.)
Malyon, T., & Henman, A. ~ No Marijuana: Plenty of Hemp,
in *New Scientist* , 13/11/1980.
La Barre, Weston ~ Culture in Context; Selected Writings
of Weston La Barre, Duke University Press, 1980.
Myrrh comes from the Commiphora Myrrha tree, which are native to Yemen, Somalia and Ethiopia. Myrrh is the dried sap from these tree's and It is used extensively in aromatherapy, Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Ayervedic medicine.
Historical Fact: Most people have heard of Myrrh because of the tales of the wisemen bringing gifts to the birth of the baby jesus, but Myrrh was first recorded in Ebers Papyrus, one of the oldest Egyptian medical texts on record. Ebers Papyrus dates to somewhere around 1550 BC and contains over 700 remedies for almost everything including embalming. Myrrh is also referred to in the Bible 156 times? That makes it the most frequently mentioned oil in the Bible!
Antimicrobial and Antiviral: Myrrh essential oil prevents microbe growth and helps prevent any infect of your body. It can be used to prevent any ailment resulting from microbial infection, such as fever, food poisoning, cough & cold, mumps, measles, pox and infections of wounds. It has no adverse side effects, unlike other antibiotics, such as weakening of the liver and digestive issues.
Astringent: Myrrh Essential Oil is an astringent, meaning that it strengthens the hold of gums on teeth, contracts the skin, muscles, intestines and other internal organs. It also strengthens the grip of scalp on hair roots, thereby preventing hair loss. One more serious aspect of this astringent property is that it stops hemorraging in wounds. When this astringency makes the blood vessels contract this helps check the flow of blood. That means it can stop you from losing too much blood when wounded.
Expectorant: Myrrh essential oil is good against coughs and colds. It fights the viral infections that can cause coughs and colds, as well as relieves congestion and reduces the deposition of phlegm in the lungs and respiratory tracts.
Antifungal: Myrrh essential oil acts as a fungicide as well. It can be used either internally and externally to fight fungal infection.
Stimulant: Myrrh essential oil stimulates thoughts, blood circulation, digestion, secretions, nervous activity and excretion. It stimulates the pumping action of the heart, the secretion of digestive juices and bile into the stomach, and it keeps you alert and active by stimulating the brain and the central nervous system.
Carminative: This essential oil helps to relieve you of those gases which can result in embarrassing situations in public. Which left unchecked can also have an expensive toll on your health by stealing your appetite, slowing down digestion, giving you stomachaches, headaches and sometimes chest pains as well if it raise's your blood pressure.
Stomachic: Myrrh oil is beneficial for the all around health of your stomach.
Anti-catarrhal: This property of Myrrh essential oil relieves you of excess mucus and phlegm and troubles associated with that sort of mucus deposition, including congestion, breathing trouble, heaviness in chest, and coughs.
Diaphoretic: It increases perspiration and keeps your body free from toxins, extra salt and excess water from your body. Sweating also cleans the skin-pores and helps harmful gases like nitrogen escape.
Vulnerary: This property of myrrh essential oil protects wounds from infections and makes them heal quicker.
Antiseptic: If you have a healthy amount of myrrh essential oil, you don’t need to worry about small cuts and wounds becoming infected. This oil can take care of that and prevent them from becoming septic, since it is an antiseptic substance. It can protect you from tetanus to some extent as well.
Immune Booster: Myrrh oil strengthens and activates the immune system and keeps the body protected from infections.
Circulatory: This powerful essential oil stimulates blood circulation and ensures the proper supply of oxygen to the tissues. This is good for attaining a proper metabolic rate as well as for boosting the immune system. Increasing the blood flow to the more obscure corners of your body, the better the nutrients and oxygen reach those body parts so they function better and stay healthy.
Tonic: This property means a boost to your overall health. As a tonic, myrrh oil tones up all the systems and organs in the body, gives them strength and protects them from premature aging and infections.
Anti-inflammatory: Myrrh essential oil sedates inflammation in various tissues in cases of fever or viral infections, in the digestive system resulting from ingestion of too much spicy food and in the circulatory system when something inflammatory or toxic enters the blood stream.
Antispasmodic: It also provides relief from unwanted contractions or spasms and therefore eases cramps, aches, and muscle pain.
This oil is highly valued in aromatherapy as a sedative, antidepressant and as a promoter of spiritual feelings. This oil takes care of uterine health and stimulates that organ, helps fading away of scars and spots, is good for treating skin ailments, pyorrhea, diarrhea and skin diseases such as eczema, ringworm, and itches. It is also an emenagogue which means that it normalizes menstruation and relieves the associated symptoms like mood swings and hormonal imbalances.
Few Words of Caution
Despite all of the many benefits of myrrh essential oil, if used in excess it can have toxic effects. Since it stimulates the uterus it should also be avoided by pregnant women as it could result in miscarriage.